ISTA Series 2 Test Information

Additional Information can be found on the ISTA website.
Non-Simulation Tests
Links to tests: ISTA 2A, ISTA 2B, ISTA 2C
 
ISTA 2-Series protocols combine some test elements from ISTA-1 Series (Non-Simulation tests) with more advanced test elements from ISTA 3 Series (General Simulation) tests.
 
They test the capabilities of the package and product to withstand a limited set of hazards of transport not necessarily compliant with carrier packaging regulations.
 
These ISTA procedures and tests provide the benefits of shortening package development time, adding confidence to meet product launch deadlines. They also ensure protection of products suggesting an increase in profits due to reduced shipping damage and loss of product. They may also lead to more balanced distribution costs and increased customer satisfaction.
 
There are three sections to the ISTA Series 2 test protocols: Overview, Testing and Reporting.
ISTA Series 2 Overview provides general information required before testing in the laboratory.
ISTA Series 2 Testing presents the instructions required for laboratory testing.
ISTA Series 2 Reporting indicates the data that shall be reported to ISTA.
 
Two systems of weights and measures are always used in ISTA testing. The English system uses inches and pounds and the international system SI is metric. Inch/Pound units are shown first with Metric units in brackets. Tables will show the two systems separately.  Either system may be used as the standard unit of measure; however, the standard unit should remain consistent throughout testing and reporting. Units are converted to significant figures, not exact equivalents.
 
 
Overview of ISTA Series Test Procedure 2A
The ISTA Series 2A test procedure is a partial simulation test for individual packaged products that can be used to evaluate the performance of a single packaged product. It can also be used to compare the performance of package and product choices. ISTA Series 2A Tests should be used to evaluate packages for international distribution. In the ISTA 2A test, the package and product are considered together. Some conditions of transit such as moisture, pressure and rough handling may not be considered.
 
Suggestion: For testing of packaged products transported in small parcel delivery systems, consider ISTA General Simulation Performance test procedure 3A.
 
ISTA Test 2A covers testing of individual packaged products weighing 150 lb (68 kg) or less when prepared for shipment. The exception to this is that individual packaged products on a visible skid or pallet, weighing more than 100 lb (45 kg) may be tested according to ISTA Test 2B or 3E.
 
The shipper shall determine prior to testing: what will be considered damage to the product and what damage level is allowable. The shipper shall also determine the correct methodology to determine product condition at the test’s conclusion and the acceptable package condition at the test conclusion.
 
When conducting the Compression Test, box failure that could result in stacking failure is considered a failed test if the packaged product might be warehoused. Box failure is allowed if the packaged product would not be warehoused and after testing if the product is not damaged according to the methodology established and if the product still meets the acceptable package condition as determined above.

Samples for ISTA Series Test Procedure 2A

Samples for Test Procedure 2A should be untested actual packages and actual products. If one or both are not available, be sure that the substitute product and packaging are as close as possible to the actual items.
 
One sample is required for tests in the ISTA Series Test 2A Procedure.
 
To allow for proper testing of package and product durability, ISTA requires that the test procedure be performed one time and recommends it be performed at least five times using new samples of products and packaging with each subsequent test.
 
In order to ensure that test are truly representative of accurate conditions, products and their packages should be either over-packaged when shipped to the testing lab or repackaged in new packaging at the testing lab.
 

Test Sequence for ISTA Series Test Procedure 2A

Sequence 1: Atmospheric Preconditioning using temperature and humidity at an ambient level. This sequence is required.
Sequence 2: Atmospheric Preconditioning using controlled temperature and humidity with temperature and humidity chosen from a chart. This sequence is required.
Sequence 3: Compression Testing (Select one test type only): Machine Apply and Release Calculated Test Force x 1.4, Machine Apply and Hold Calculated test force, Weight and Load Spreader Calculated Test Load, Required.
Sequence 4: Vibration Testing (Select one test type only): Using fixed displacement at 1 inch (25 mm) peak-to-peak at a frequency to be determined, Random Overall Grms level of 1.15. This sequence is required.
Sequence 5: Shock Testing using drop testing with varying height and packaged product weight.  Also incline impact with variable impact velocity depending upon packaged product weight. Finally horizontal impact is tested with impact velocity varying with product weight. These sequences are required.
Sequence 6: Vibration Testing (Select one test type only): Using fixed displacement at 1 inch (25 mm) peak-to-peak at a frequency to be determined, Random Overall Grms level of 1.15. This sequence is required.

Note: It is acceptable to use either the same or different vibration methods in sequences 4 and 6. The report should clearly document which type of vibration was used for each sequence number.

 

Required Equipment for ISTA Series Test Procedure 2A

Atmospheric Conditioning: A chamber and control apparatus complying with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4332. Humidity recording apparatus complying with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4332, and a Temperature recording apparatus complying with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4332.
 
The following choices are acceptable for the Compression Test:
Apply and Release Test: Compression test system equipment in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 642 (Fixed or floating platen acceptable.)
Apply and Hold Test: Compression test system equipment in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 642 (Fixed or floating platen acceptable.)
Apply and Hold Test: Weight and Load Spreader equipment.
 
The following choices are acceptable for the Vibration Test:
For the fixed displacement vibration test, a vibration test system with a 1 inch fixed or controlled displacement complying with Method A1 or A2 of the apparatus section of ASTM D 999. Rotary or vertical linear motion of the platform is acceptable. Metal ship .06 thick approximately 1 inches wide at a convenient length. Tachometer or indicator that determines the vibration frequency in cycles per second or per minute. Automatic timer or stopwatch is required.
 
The following choices are acceptable for the Shock Test:
For the Drop test, a free fall drop tester in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 5276.
For the Vertical Shock test, a shock test machine in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 5487.
For the Alternative Incline test, an incline impact tester (conbur) in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 880.
For the Alternative Horizontal test, a horizontal impact test system in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4003.
Overview of ISTA Series Test Procedure 2B
The ISTA Series 2B test procedure is a partial simulation test for individual packaged products that can be used to evaluate the performance of a single packaged product. It can also be used to compare the performance of package and product choices. ISTA Series 2B Tests should be used to evaluate packages for international distribution. In the ISTA 2B test, the package and product are considered together. Some conditions of transit such as moisture, pressure and rough handling may not be considered.
 
ISTA Test 2B covers testing of individual packaged products weighing 150 lb (68 kg) or more when prepared for shipment.
 
The exception to this is that individual packaged products on a visible skid or pallet may be tested according to ISTA Non-Simulation integrity Performance Test Procedure 1E or ISTA General Simulation Performance Test Procedure 3E.
 
The shipper shall determine prior to testing: what will be considered damage to the product and what damage level is allowable. The shipper shall also determine the correct methodology to determine product condition at the test’s conclusion and the acceptable package condition at the test conclusion.
 
When conducting the Compression Test, box failure that could result in stacking failure is considered a failed test if the packaged product might be warehoused. Box failure is allowed if the packaged product would not be warehoused and after testing if the product is not damaged according to the methodology established and if the product still meets the acceptable package condition as determined above.

Samples for ISTA Series Test Procedure 2B

Samples for Test Procedure 2B should be untested actual packages and actual products. If one or both are not available, be sure that the substitute product and packaging are as close as possible to the actual items.
 
One sample is required for tests in the ISTA Series Test 2A Procedure.
 
To allow for proper testing of package and product durability, ISTA requires that the test procedure be performed one time and recommends it be performed at least five times using new samples of products and packaging with each subsequent test.
 
In order to ensure that test are truly representative of accurate conditions, products and their packages should be either over-packaged when shipped to the testing lab or repackaged in new packaging at the testing lab.
 

Test Sequence for ISTA Series Test Procedure 2B

Sequence 1: Atmospheric Preconditioning using temperature and humidity at an ambient level. This sequence is required.
Sequence 2: Atmospheric Preconditioning using controlled temperature and humidity with temperature and humidity chosen from a chart. This sequence is required.
Sequence 3: Compression Testing (Select one test type only): Machine Apply and Release Calculated Test Force x 1.4, Machine Apply and Hold Calculated test force, Weight and Load Spreader Calculated Test Load, Required.
Sequence 4: Vibration Testing (Select one test type only): Using fixed displacement at 1 inch (25 mm) peak-to-peak at a frequency to be determined, Random Overall Grms level of 1.15. This sequence is required.
Sequence 5: Shock Testing using drop testing from 6 in (25 mm) peak to peak at a frequency to be determined, Incline Impact (Conbur) from 69 in (1.7 m) per second velocity change, Horizontal Impact 69 in (1.7 m) per second velocity change. Shock Testing is required.
Sequence 6: Shock Testing by Rotational Edge Drop from 8 in (200 mm). This is required when not testing face 1.
Sequence 7: Vibration Testing (Select one test type only): Using fixed displacement at 1 inch (25 mm) peak-to-peak at a frequency to be determined, Random Overall Grms level of 1.15. This sequence is required.

Note: It is acceptable to use either the same or different vibration methods in sequences 4 and 7. The report should clearly document which type of vibration was used for each sequence number.

 

Required Equipment for ISTA Series Test Procedure 2B

Atmospheric Conditioning: A chamber and control apparatus complying with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4332. Humidity recording apparatus complying with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4332, and a Temperature recording apparatus complying with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4332.
 
The following choices are acceptable for the Compression Test:
Apply and Release Test: Compression test system equipment in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 642 (Fixed or floating platen acceptable.)
Apply and Hold Test: Compression test system equipment in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 642 (Fixed or floating platen acceptable.)
Apply and Hold Test: Weight and Load Spreader equipment.
 
The following choices are acceptable for the Vibration Test:
For the fixed displacement vibration test, a vibration test system with a 1 inch fixed or controlled displacement complying with Method A1 or A2 of the apparatus section of ASTM D 999. Rotary or vertical linear motion of the platform is acceptable. Metal ship .06 thick approximately 1 inches wide at a convenient length. Tachometer or indicator that determines the vibration frequency in cycles per second or per minute. Automatic timer or stopwatch is required.
 
The following choices are acceptable for the Shock Test:
For the Drop test, a free fall drop tester in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 5276.
For the Vertical Shock test, a shock test machine in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 5487.
For the Incline test, an incline impact tester (conbur) in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 880.
For the Horizontal test, a horizontal impact test system in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4003.
For the Rotational test, Rotational Drop equipment in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 6179.
 
Overview of ISTA Series Test Procedure 2C
The ISTA Series 2C test procedure is a partial simulation test for individual packaged furniture products otherwise known as Case Goods. While it is true that the traditional definition of “case goods” is for hard goods and not upholstered furniture, this test can be used for any furniture that is transported in a container. This test series can be used to evaluate the performance of a single packaged product. It can also be used to compare the performance of package and product choices. ISTA Series 2C Tests should be used to evaluate packages for international distribution. In the ISTA 2C test, the package and product are considered together. Some conditions of transit such as moisture, pressure and rough handling may not be considered.
 
ISTA Test 2C covers testing of individual packaged products of furniture, otherwise known as “case goods” for shipment.
 
The exception to this is that individual packaged products on a visible skid or pallet may be tested according to ISTA Non-Simulation integrity Performance Test Procedure 1E or ISTA General Simulation Performance Test Procedure 3E.
 
The shipper shall determine prior to testing: what will be considered damage to the product and what damage level is allowable. The shipper shall also determine the correct methodology to determine product condition at the test’s conclusion and the acceptable package condition at the test conclusion.

Samples for ISTA Series Test Procedure 2C

Samples for Test Procedure 2A should be untested actual packages and actual products. If one or both are not available, be sure that the substitute product and packaging are as close as possible to the actual items.
 
One sample is required for tests in the ISTA Series Test 2C Procedure.
 
To allow for proper testing of package and product durability, ISTA requires that the test procedure be performed one time and recommends it be performed at least five times using new samples of products and packaging with each subsequent test.
 
In order to ensure that test are truly representative of accurate conditions, products and their packages should be either over-packaged when shipped to the testing lab or repackaged in new packaging at the testing lab.
 

Test Sequence for ISTA Series Test Procedure 2C

Sequence 1: Atmospheric Preconditioning using temperature and humidity at an ambient level. This sequence is required.
Sequence 2: Atmospheric Preconditioning using controlled temperature and humidity with temperature and humidity chosen from a chart. This sequence is optional.
Sequence 3: Vibration Testing: Using random test type under dynamic load. The test level is Calculated Top Load differing for distribution channel and according to package size and configuration. Random vibration spectrum differs per distribution channel. This sequence is required.
Sequence 4: Shock Testing by Drop with height varying with packaged-product weight and distribution channel, Exception one and Two Incline-Impact (Conbur) with impact velocity varying with packaged-product weight, and Horizontal Impact with impact velocity varying with packaged-product weight. This sequence is required.

Required Equipment for ISTA Series Test Procedure 2C

Atmospheric Preconditioning: A temperature recording apparatus complying with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4332. Humidity recording apparatus complying with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4332.
 
Equipment required for optional Atmospheric Conditioning:
Random Vibration Test System complying with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4728. Top-Load apparatus of one, two or four separate loading systems.
 
The following choices are acceptable for the Shock Test:
For the Drop test, a free fall drop tester in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 5276.
For the Vertical Shock test, a shock test machine in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 5487.
For the Incline test, an incline impact tester (conbur) in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 880.
For the Horizontal test, a horizontal impact test system in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 4003.
For the Rotational Edge test, Rotational Drop equipment in compliance with the apparatus section of ASTM D 6179.